This is the most common of the Collie eye diseases, but it should be noted that Collies share this disease with several other breeds. Researchers first noted this problem nearly fifty years ago. It was later found to exist in most Collies and in most Collie families. This so-called syndrome, meaning a group of conditions which appear in conjunction with each other, is present prior to birth.
Collie Eye Anomaly can be easily checked when the puppies are 5-6 weeks old. It is something that your average Veterinarian is not qualified to diagnose. The eyes must be dilated prior to the examination, so the interior of the eye can be examined with an Ophthalmoloscope.
A dog is either given a “Normal” or “Affected” rating. If given “affected” the type of abnormality is noted.
Normal: A “Normal” eye rating is of course the best grading there is. There are variations even in “Normal” eyes. These correspond somewhat to a dog’s coat color. Thus it is often difficult to judge the pigment in a Blue Merle’s eyes as it is diluted along with his coat color.
Choroidal Hypoplasia, Chorioretinal Change:These refer to abnormalities in the coloring or pigmentation of the choroid or central layer of the eye’s lining. This is the most common abnormality found in Collie eyes. Often referred to as mild CRC, Grade I or Grade II, it is the least harmful and least severe form of CEA. Most dogs with this eye grade function normally with no ill-effects or loss of vision.
Staphyloma, Coloboma, Ectasia: While not completely synonymous, these terms all refer to a cupping or bulging in the eyeball usually in the area of the optic disc.
Vascular Disease, Tortuous Blood Vessels:Defects in the vessels of the eye which are responsible for its blood supply or “nourishment.” These may be malformed, undersized, or even lacking.
Retinal Detachment: Loosening or separation of the inmost, or retina, layer from the wall of the eye. This may involve a tiny area or the entire retina. It can be either one or both eyes. The complete detachment of the retina results in blindness in that eye.
Can the Collie’s eyes become worse? Might he later go blind? The basic answer is “No” as CEA is present prior to birth. However, a dog born with a severe Staphyloma or with Vascular Disease may later suffer loss of sight if a detachment or severe hemorrhage occurs. The majority of dogs that are slightly affected, will have perfectly adequate eye vision throughout their life. (Even a dog with one blind eye will adapt perfectly well in his surroundings.)
What have breeders done to improve Collie eyes? When the eye problem was discovered more than 50 years ago, it was estimated that 90% of the Collie population was afflicted with some form of eye disease. Because CEA has involved such a large percentage of the breed, eradication has been slow . Over the years, with selective breeding and eye checking of breeding stock, the numbers of affected Collies has greatly reduced. ALL reputable breeders eye check not only their breeding stock, but all puppies that are offered for sale.
How is CEA inherited? Most of the specialists agree that Choroidal Hypoplasia is carried as a simple recessive. For a dog to show symptoms, both parents, even if they show no signs themselves, must carry a gene for the condition. Evidence exists that some other parts of the syndrome are inherited differently. Staphyloma, for instance, rarely occurs except in the presence of Choroidal Hypoplasia. Dogs recommended for breeding will vary according to the standard set by the individual doctor. The ideal, of course, is to eliminate all but the clear, non-carriers, from the breed. Please note: Even among the dogs that examine “normal”, most are carriers of the gene. They have a “hidden” or recessive gene for the condition and will transmit the gene to half its offspring.
With thanks to the Collie Health Organisation for the above information.
Thankfully Duke doesn’t have CEA and here is the certificate to prove it – Duke CEA certificate